Defining dietary patterns with the same a priori scoring or employing confirmatory factor analysis to further establish the validity of the patterns derived with exploratory factor analysis could assist future research to obtain more consistent results Therefore, the recommended intake during lactation is not different from that of the healthy adult female population 1. Article Navigation. Curr Opin Lipidol. The effects of iodine deficiency in pregnancy and infancy. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. During pregnancy, micronutrient requirements increase more than those of macronutrients, and inadequate intakes and, thus, a low nutritional quality of the diet can have significant consequences for both the mother and the developing fetus. Schoenmakers I. The transport of calcium from the maternal compartment to the fetus takes place through active transporters in the epithelial layer of the placenta.
Findings on the relations of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth and offspring birth size remain inconclusive. We aimed to systematically review and quantify these associations. Three authors independently conducted a literature search, study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment. Summary effect sizes were calculated with random effects models and studies were summarized narratively if results could not be pooled. We included 36 studies and pooled results from 25 observational studies , participants. Healthy dietary patterns—characterized by high intakes of vegetables, fruits, wholegrains, low-fat dairy, and lean protein foods—were associated with lower risk of preterm birth OR for top compared with bottom tertile: 0. Data from observational studies indicate that greater adherence to healthy dietary patterns during pregnancy is significantly related to lower risk of preterm birth. No consistent associations with birth weight and small- or large-for-gestational-age were observed.
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Comparison of nutritional quality of the vegan, vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian and omnivorous diet. Health later in life is also affected by the growth rate in the first months of life, when breastmilk represents the gold standard for infant feeding, as recognized by the WHO, who defines it part of the reproductive process, with important implications also for the health of lactating mothers, ranging from the reduction of cardiovascular risk and hip fractures in post-menopause, to protection against some types of cancers, such as breast and ovarian cancers. Conclusions Very hard scientific evidence supports the importance of lifestyle and dietary habits with adequate micronutrient intakes during pregnancy and breastfeeding, for the health status of women and their offspring. Modified from [ 57 ]. Cicchetti DV. Previous nutrient-focused meta-analyses, which were mostly conducted in rural or low-income populations, showed that multiple micronutrients 62 or balanced protein energy supplementation i. Search ADS.